I had changed a flat tire on Friday after work and found a broken spoke. I went from work to my LBS (local bike shop) and they took off the wheel, the tire, and replaced the spoke and trued to wheel. From there I went straight home (about 3 blocks). The bike sat untouched on Saturday and Sunday. Monday morning I started my ride to work and made it about a mile when the wall of the rim bent outward rendering the bike un-rideable. Was this a coincidence or do you think my LBS did something while fixing my wheel that damaged my rim? It's a 2016 Specialized Crossroad, so it's not particularly fragile. I have ridden almost every day since I got it two years ago. Opinions please.
I've had a wheel develop a crack due to improper/uneven spoke tension over a year or so of regular riding. The fact that you had a broken spoke (and didn't notice it for who knows how long) suggests the tension might not have been right for some time. I can't imagine what the LBS could have done to make this happen so quickly.
Are the wheels on your bike the stock wheels that came with the bike? In my experience stock wheels aren't the best and do not have the greatest longevity. I am sure others have a different experience, but I can only attest to my own. I have 3 bikes, all of which have a new set for one reason or another (accidents, wear down, defects)
Are you comfortable sharing the name of the shop? I am sure there was no malintent. I find when I go back to the LBS after issues with repairs they stand behind their work and take care of you.
You presumably asked for a spoke replacement and that's what you got, but it looks like what you really needed was either a rebuilt wheel or a rebuilt wheel with a new rim.
The cost of rebuilding the wheel might be the same or very close to the cost of a brand new wheel.
Tthe rim surface wears from braking, especially if ridden wet.
They probably followed the usual spoke replacement procedures.
Install, true, and max tire pressure.
Your rim wall may have been worn down from braking friction.
Your safest solution would probably be rim replacement.
I think a better place than an internet forum to ask about your "suspicious" rim damage is the bike shop you feel may have caused it...
Don't ask bike people about bike stuff on an bike forum? Please link me to the list of Doug Approved Topics.
I'm no expert, but from the photo it looks like that rim had become weak and was on the way out. The broken spoke may have been more a symptom of a problem than a cause.